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Fr. Raymond Brown

In the three-year cycle of the Sunday lectionary, we’re currently
in Year B. Year B is the year of Mark’s Gospel, but in the
summer, it takes a five-week break from Mark to read through
the story of the feeding of the 5,000 and the Bread of Life
Discourse in John 6.

There’s a good chance, then, that the homilies you heard this summer were influenced, whether directly or indirectly, by the scholarship of Fr. Raymond Brown. Brown (1928–1998) was one of the most prominent biblical scholars of the twentieth century, highly regarded by Catholics and non-Catholics alike and especially influential in the study of the Gospel and Epistles of John.

The first part of his Anchor Yale Bible volume on the Gospel of John contains a close reading of the text that draws out important structural parallels between John and the Synoptic Gospels and outlines the structure of John 6 in a way that roughly corresponds to how the readings are broken up in the lectionary. It divides the Bread of Life discourse into two parts: John 6:35–50, which uses the imagery of the Bread of Life with a twofold meaning, referring both to divine revelation and the Eucharist, and John 6:51–59, which refers exclusively to the Eucharist.

Brown speculates on the interrelationship between the development of the tradition underlying this section of John’s Gospel and the Eucharistic liturgy of the primitive Church, seeing Eucharistic motifs in the feeding of the 5,000 and, in the second part of the Bread of Life discourse, possible reflections of a Johannine narrative of the institution of the Eucharist.

Brown’s method is historical-critical, and his career coincided with the adoption of this method by Catholic biblical scholars following Pius XII’s encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu and the Second Vatican Council’s constitution Dei Verbum. Just as this shift has not been without problems or critics within the Church, so Brown’s work has not been received without controversy. In particular, critics charge that these methods undermine belief in the authority and truth of the Scriptures and make the Bible accessible only to academic experts.

Though many view the embrace of the historical-critical method following Dei Verbum as decisive and irreversible, the debate over its limits and place in Catholic exegesis has continued as Catholics have sought to fulfill Dei Verbum’s carefully balanced call to mind both the human and the divine elements in the Scriptures and to make use of modern sciences while maintaining continuity with the Church’s tradition of exegesis. A good overview of the issues, and a balanced presentation of the state of the question, can be found in Peter Williamson’s Catholic Principles for Interpreting Scripture (available in the two larger Catholic libraries). Brown’s work figures prominently in Williamson’s discussion of the historical-critical method and the literal sense, as well as that of the “fuller sense” (sensus plenior), which was the subject of his doctoral dissertation.

Whatever the eventual outcome of these debates, Fr. Brown’s works remain influential and important for understanding the development of Catholic biblical scholarship and the interpretation of the Gospel of John in the twentieth century, and Logos is the perfect platform for studying them in the context of the whole of Catholic tradition. In addition to his three Anchor Yale Bible volumes on the Gospel and Epistles of John mentioned above, you can get his contributions to the Anchor Yale Reference Library in the five-volume Raymond E. Brown Collection or as part of the two larger Catholic libraries.

Searching a Single Book of the Bible

Logos has a special search type just for searching the Bible. Start a Bible Search by clicking the Search button and selecting Bible on the upper left.

 

One of the Bible Search’s special features is limiting your search to a particular part of the Bible. This can be particularly helpful if you’re searching for a fairly common word and want to focus in on a particular book.

The part of the Bible you’re searching is one of the options set by the blue hyperlinks above the search box. “All Passages” means you’re searching the entire Bible, but you can click the link to see the other options.

“Common Divisions” gives options for just searching the Old Testament or New Testament. These divisions depend on the Bible or Bibles you’re searching, so if you’re searching in a Protestant Bible, you’ll see divisions that reflect the Protestant canon rather than the Catholic canon. Below the divisions, you have the option of searching within the verses from Passage Lists you’ve created.

Below this is a box for specifying your own Bible reference range for searching. Type the name of the book you want to search in this box, press enter, and your search will be limited to just this book.

Of course, you can specify a range that is as wide or narrow as you like. It can even be a list of books or passages. Your custom passage ranges are automatically added as options at the menu, so you can easily select a previously used search range. Use the “Range title” box at the bottom to assign your own title to your range.

You can learn more about search features on the Logos Wiki, and the Catholic Practicum training videos, now available for pre-order, include an entire section on using Search.

Working with Greek and Hebrew Text in Logos

One of the first barriers faced by an English speaker who wants to work with the original language Scriptures is the challenge of learning the Greek and Hebrew alphabets. Even if you’ve long since mastered them, though, they still present a certain challenge for computing: Where’s the “ζ” key on my standard-issue US keyboard?

However well you know your “alpha-beta-gammas,” there are several methods you can use for working with these scripts in Logos.

Learn the Right-Click Menu

First of all, you should familiarize yourself with the context menu that you get when you right-click a word in a reverse interlinear or original language text. Most of the time, when I want to search for or look up a Greek or Hebrew word, I’m starting from a Bible passage, and the word is right in front of me. Right-clicking the word brings up a context menu that makes most of the important commands easily available, so you won’t have to rely on your typing, spelling, or memory.

For a reverse interlinear or morphologically tagged original language text in Logos, the context menu reveals the multiple layers of data behind the surface text. Choose the data layer you want to work with on the right side of the menu, and then choose a command on the left. Most of the time, you’re going to want to work with the “lemma.” This is the dictionary form of the word—what you use to look up a word in a lexicon or run a Bible Word Study or search that includes all occurrences of a word, regardless of form. When you select lemma on the right, the left side of the menu gives you a number of options for searches and lexicons, as well as “Bible Word Study.”

“Untransliteration”

These options are usually adequate for my use, but it’s also possible to input a Greek or Hebrew word directly into a search or Bible Word Study. If you preface your search term with a “g:” or “h:” Logos will read your (Latin-alphabet) input as, respectively, transliterated Greek or Hebrew. It will even suggest options for you as you type, so you can just pick the word you want from the list.

Greek and Hebrew Keyboards

Logos can also accept Greek and Hebrew characters directly. Both Macintosh and Windows have system options that let you input these alphabets from your keyboard—basically remapping your keys so that, when you type, you get Greek or Hebrew characters instead of the Latin alphabet. We’ve created software “keyboards” for the Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, and Coptic alphabets that do this for Windows, which you can download for free here.

Unlock the full power of Logos’ original language tools with the resources in Catholic Scholar’s Library.

Bible Harmonies and Parallel Passages

This blog post contains Logos reference hyperlinks, a feature in the software that allows you to share what you find with other Logos users. These links only work for users who own the respective Logos resources. All links in this article will function for users with Foundations Library and above. More information can be found here.

[T]he Word, the Artificer of all, He that sitteth upon the cherubim, and contains all things, He who was manifested to men, has given us the Gospel under four aspects, but bound together by one Spirit. (Ireneaus, Adv. Haer. 3.11.8)

When you think of the story of our Lord’s birth or passion, you probably automatically bring together elements from all four Gospels—for instance, the adoration of the shepherds from Luke 2:8–18 and the adoration of the magi from Matthew 2:1–12. The Scriptures tell the story of the life of Christ through the “fourfold Gospel” (cf. Dei Verbum 18) of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, but it’s natural for us to try to put these four perspectives together in a single narrative. Over the centuries, this has given rise to much reflection on the nature of divine revelation and the particular interpretive puzzles that arise from comparing and harmonizing the Gospels.

Church Fathers such as St. Irenaeus, St. Augustine, and St. Jerome speculated on the divine providence behind this fourfold Gospel, the relationship between the four Gospels, and the particular purpose of each. St. Augustine even devoted an entire work, De consensu Evangelistarum, to the subject, and from these Fathers comes the traditional association of each of the evangelists with the four living creatures described in Revelation 4:7. (See Irenaeus, ibid., Augustine, De consens. Ev. 1.6.9., Jerome, Preface to the Commentary on Matthew.) Interest in the subject has never ceased, and biblical scholars continue to be occupied with determining the relationship between the Synoptic Gospels.

From early on, this reflection led to efforts to harmonize the text of the four Gospels, such as the second-century Diatessaron of Tatian, which weaves the text of the Gospels into a single narrative, and Eusebius of Caesarea’s system of canons for dividing and aligning the pericopes of the Gospels into parallels. The Diatessaron can be found in volume 9 of the Ante-Nicene Fathers, but the Eusebian Canons and several modern Gospels harmonies are contained in Logos’ “Bible harmony” resources.

Most Bible harmony resources align parallel verses or passages side by side in tables, and, like Logos lectionary resources, dynamically insert the Scripture text from the translation of your choice. You can choose which translation to display from the menu at the top of the resource pane:

In addition to resources that align Gospel parallels, the Catholic Libraries contain Bible harmonies that line up other related Bible texts as well. You can bring together, for example, the parallels between the books of Samuel and Kings and the books of Chronicles or the New Testament quotations of the Old Testament and their Old Testament sources.

The Passage Guide makes parallels from these harmony alignments easily available in the Parallel Passages section.

This Passage Guide section makes it easy to see where a Gospel reading has parallels in the other three Gospels or where it has quotations from or allusions to the Old Testament. You can click on the section headings to open the Bible harmony resource. Note, too, that for the Old Testament quotations, it works both ways, so if you’re studying an Old Testament passage, Parallel Passages will show you where the text is quoted in the New Testament.

So perhaps you don’t yet have the command of the Scriptures that St. Augustine displays, but Parallel Passages makes it easier for you to study Gospel parallels side by side and discover relationships between passages so that you can interpret them in light of the whole canon.

UPDATE:

User Dominick Sela asked about layouts for taking advantage of parallel passages and harmonies. Below is a simple one I’ve put together for Gospel harmonies with some ideas for using a couple of tools for getting information out of these resources.

  1. I’ve created a custom Guide Template that only contains the “Parallel Passages” section from the passage guide.
  2. I’ve added the tag “Harmony” to ANF9 and NPNF1:6, which contain Tatian’s Diatessaron and Augustine’s Harmony of the Gospels, then used the Cited By tool to just search resources with this tag. (This gives some false hits from other works in these volumes, but the reference is visible, so you can distinguish them.)
  3. I’ve set up both with a Bible and one of the harmony resources in a link set. The parallel resources button on the harmony also gives quick access to the other harmony resources.

You could expand on this to set up additional harmony resources in the link set, have the Cited By search more resources, etc. Or, if you wanted to focus it more on Old Testament quotations, you could set up the two harmonies focused on that in the link set and, if you own them, include resources like the Commentary on New Testament Use of the Old Testament.

Dictionary of Bible Themes

We recently posted about using Nave’s Topical Bible for topical Scripture study. Another powerful tool for this kind of study that’s probably less well known than Nave’s is Martin Manser’s Dictionary of Bible Themes.

The Dictionary of Bible Themes is fundamentally similar to Nave’s in that it arranges Bible verses together under topical headings. What makes it distinct, though, is that the topics are arranged thematically rather than alphabetically.

For example, if you look up “envy” in the Dictionary of Bible Themes, like we did with Nave’s, you see that it’s grouped with other “Threats to the life of faith,” which is part of the theme “The life of the believer.”

This thematic arrangement means that when you look up a topic, it’s easy to browse nearby topics for related themes. Near “envy,” for instance, you find other vices and obstacles to the believer:

In addition, the list of references under each topic is further broken down and grouped in subtopics. The verses for “envy,” for instance, are broken down into causes, examples, and results of envy and verses forbidding envy:

These themes are all keyed to a numbering system that makes it easy to use the cross-references and indexes in the print, but of course, Logos makes all this automatic. The extensive cross-references given in the topics are all hyperlinked. To find a topic, just start typing it into the active reference box at the top of the resource panel:

Where the topics in Dictionary of Bible Themes overlap with Nave’s or other books with topical headwords, you can use the parallel resources button to quickly switch between resources. For instance, from this article, parallel resources lets you quickly jump to “envy” in Nave’s, the glossary of the Catechism, or several other dictionaries and reference works:

To find what themes are associated with a particular verse, use the Basic search. Enter the Bible reference and change the options at the top to limit the search to Dictionary of Bible Themes instead of “Entire Library”:

The search results will give you a list of all the themes this verse appears under:

From there, you can explore the themes for that verse and find thematically related verses. For instance, this search turned up the theme of divine promises for 2 Corinthians 1:20; specifically, it groups this verse with other references demonstrating that God’s promises are fulfilled in Christ:

Thus, just like we did with Nave’s, you can use the Dictionary of Bible Themes to find verses related to a particular topic or to find topics related to the verse you’re studying. From there, you can use the cross-references and neighboring themes to easily broaden your study to related areas.

Navigate the Bible through its ideas, not its verse numbers. Get the Dictionary of Bible Themes in any of three Logos Catholic Libraries.

The Command Bar: Give Your Mouse a Rest

If you’re the sort of person who’s always looking for ways to eliminate a few mouse clicks from your day, you’ll want to familiarize yourself with the Logos Command Bar.

The Command Bar can be used for many common (and uncommon) tasks in Logos, but here are a few basics that I find particularly useful.

Open a book.

If you know the name of the book you want to open, bypass the Library and just type the title into the Command Bar. For example, start typing “Catechism” or “CCC” into the Command Bar and it will suggest the Catechism of the Catholic Church. Press Enter to open the Catechism.

Look up a reference.

Similarly, you can use the Command Bar to jump right to a Bible verse. Type “Mt 5” in the Command Bar and press Enter to jump to Matthew 5 in your preferred Bible.

If you want to open a different Bible to Mt 5, type that Bible’s name or abbreviation followed by “to Mt 5.” For example, “D-R to Mt 5” will open the Douay-Rheims Bible to Matthew 5.

The same thing works for commentaries and other books indexed by Bible verse. For example, “CatAur to Mt 5” will open the Catena Aurea to Matthew 5.

Other kinds of references work, too. “Vatican II to LG,” for instance, will open the documents of Vatican II to Lumen Gentium.

Look up a word or perform a search.

I often use Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary or the Concise Oxford English Dictionary in Logos to quickly look up definitions of unfamiliar words. The quickest way to do this is the “look up” command. For example, “look up anagogical” will take you to the definition in Merriam-Webster’s.

Looking up a word in a specific dictionary or glossary works the same as looking up a verse in a specific Bible. “CCC to Eucharist” will open the Catechism to the glossary entry for “Eucharist.”

Just type “Eucharist” alone, however, and the command bar opens a search for “Eucharist.”

Close all open panels.

Finally, if your workspace gets a little cluttered with panels and you want to clear it to start over, use the “close all” command to close everything you’ve opened.

You can find more information on the Command Bar in Help, plus a full list of commands on the Logos Wiki.

St. Cyril of Alexandria

On June 27, the Western Church celebrated the feast of St. Cyril of Alexandria. St. Cyril was patriarch of Alexandria from AD 412 to 444, and he played a pivotal role in the Christological controversies that engaged three ecumenical councils and resulted in two major schisms in the Church that persist to this day.

In his own lifetime, Cyril played a central role in the Council of Ephesus (431), which condemned the views of Nestorius for compromising the union of humanity and divinity in Christ and denying that Mary ought to be called Theotokos (“God-bearer” or “Mother of God”). After Cyril’s death, his writings were central to the controversies of the Council of Chalcedon (451) and the Second Council of Constantinople (553). When the Council of Chalcedon condemned Eutyches’ view that Christ’s divinity and humanity formed one nature (mia physis), stating that Christ has a divine and a human nature that are inseparable but that remain unconfused and distinct, Cyril’s writings were invoked by those (commonly known as “Monophysites”) who saw Chalcedon as a repudiation of Ephesus and refused to accept Chalcedon. The Second Council of Constantinople attempted, but failed, to heal this schism by reaffirming the condemnation of Nestorianism and demonstrating that the Chalcedon was to be understood in continuity with Ephesus and the theology of Cyril.

Cyril comes across as a rather forceful personality in an age whose theological controversies were characterized by fierce polemics, impassioned debates, and political maneuverings, and some people blame him for failing to restrain his flock in the mob violence that sometimes broke out between Christians, Jews, and pagans in fifth-century Alexandria. Thus, Cyril has sometimes been neglected or even vilified in recent centuries or only studied for his contribution to the Christological controversies.

The Theology of St. Cyril of Alexandria: A Critical Appreciation attempts to address this with a more balanced appraisal of Cyril and of his contributions that goes beyond the Nestorian controversy and places it in context by exploring his exegetical writings, his soteriology, and other neglected aspects of his work. I found many of the essays to be valuable—in particular, Robert Louis Wilken on Cyril’s Christocentric reading of the Old Testament, Fr. Thomas Weinandy on Cyril’s Christology (including a reading of Chalcedon “through Cyril’s eyes”), and especially Daniel Keating’s essay on divinization in Cyril, which lays out Cyril’s thoroughly sacramental account of our union with Christ by following his commentary on Jesus’ baptism, on John 3:3–6, and on John 6.

I’m particularly fond of the imagery used by St. Cyril in his comments on John 6:54:

Wherefore even though death which by the transgression sprang on us compel the human body to the debt of decay, yet since Christ is in us through His Own Flesh, we shall surely rise. For it were incredible, yea rather impossible, that Life should not make alive those in whom It is. For as if one took a spark and buried it amid much stubble, in order that the seed of fire preserved might lay hold on it, so in us too our Lord Jesus Christ hideth life through His Own Flesh, and inserts it as a seed of immortality, abolishing the whole corruption that is in us.

The Theology of St. Cyril of Alexandria is just one example of the rich collection of books you get with Logos’ Catholic Scripture Study Library and Catholic Scholar’s Library.

Of course, there’s no substitute for going straight to the source, and there’s still time to get in on the discounted Pre-Pub price for the Works of St. Cyril of Alexandria collection, which includes writings related to Cyril’s controversy with Nestorius, as well as his commentaries on the Gospels of Luke and John.

New Nave’s Topical Bible

The Logos Catholic libraries contain a number of reference books that are standard Bible study tools among Protestants but that might be less well-known to some Catholic users. One of these is New Nave’s Topical Bible.

Nave’s is basically a giant topical index to the Scriptures, so it’s the perfect tool for when you have a topic in mind and want to find relevant Bible passages. While you have to keep in mind that it only covers the Protestant canon and that, for some topics, differences in interpretation lead it to omit some passages Catholics might find relevant, I still find it to be a very useful tool, and it’s worthwhile to learn how to use it in Logos.

Let’s say, for instance, that you wanted to find verses that relate to the topic of envy.

First of all, if you run a Logos search for a topic like “envy,” if Nave’s has an entry for it, it will show up right at the top of your results in the “Topic” section.

Or, if you want to go straight to Nave’s, just open it from Library and type your topic into the active reference box at the top of the resource panel.

Under the heading, you’ll find a list of passages that talk about envy or give instances of it—a great starting point for a thorough study of what the Bible has to say about envy.

This is the basic function of a topical Bible, and Logos makes it simple, but Logos’ indexing of Bible references also allows you to easily work the other way. In other words, if I’m studying the Sunday readings or another passage, I can use Nave’s in Logos to find topics related to that passage.

The easiest way to do this is through the “Topics” section in the Passage Guide. If I run a Passage Guide on, say, Matthew 28:16–20, the Topics section brings in related topics from Nave’s and a number of other topically indexed resources by searching for the passage and displaying the topics under which it appears.

You can choose between the “Tags,” “Cloud,” and “List” display options in the upper right; if you’re showing “Tags,” you get a tag cloud at the top that displays the different topics sized according to relative importance in the passage. Click a topic and you get a list of links to Nave’s or other resources at the bottom. Click on the link to open Nave’s to that topic.

The results can be helpful on two levels. On the first level, it can help bring out the major and minor themes of the passage. Some of these, like “Great Commission” or “Baptism,” might seem obvious, but you might find other more subtle things that had escaped your attention. For instance, I hadn’t thought before about the fact that Christ makes statements related to both his omnipotence (Matthew 28:18) and his omnipresence (Matthew 28:20) in this passage.

On the second level, though, this report lets you use Nave’s to discover thematically related passages. Again, this can be helpful both for more obvious themes—for instance, finding other places the Scriptures mention baptism—and more subtle ones, like other things done or received “in the name” of Christ or the Trinity.

Thus, in Logos, Nave’s doesn’t just help you quickly look up verses related to a topic you’re interested in; it becomes a tool to help you relate your reading to a broader context within the Scriptures.

Sources of Catholic Dogma—Helpful Hints

If you’re studying the Catechism of the Catholic Church with one of Logos’ Catholic libraries, one of the resources you should be familiar with is The Sources of Catholic Dogma.

The Sources of Catholic Dogma traces the development of Catholic teaching—a development largely guided by papal and church council decrees. Translated from the 30th edition of Henry Denzinger’s famous Enchiridion Symbolorum, it consists of chronologically organized excerpts spanning from St. Clement of Rome (c. AD 90) to Pius XII (1939–1958).

The Enchiridion was later revised and given a new numbering system by Adolf Schönmetzer in the mid-1960s. We’ve updated the Logos edition of Sources to support both numbering systems. Adding the Denzinger-Schönmetzer (or “DS”) numbers allows us to tie together all 250-plus references to Denzinger-Schönmetzer found in the Catechism—virtually all its references to pre–Vatican II church documents.

In the Logos edition of Sources of Catholic Dogma, DS numbers follow the main numbering in brackets. You can choose which numbering system to display and navigate by clicking the active index box at the top of the resource panel and choosing between the “DS” or “SCD.”

The chronological arrangement of the texts makes it pretty easy to look up a document from a particular pope or council, but for topical study, you can use Search or browse one of the indexes at the back of the book. Sources of Catholic Dogma has both an alphabetical index of persons and terms and a systematic index that organizes related topics.

Most of the time, though, I use Sources in conjunction with the texts that reference Denzinger heavily, especially the Catechism, papal encyclicals, the documents of Vatican II, and Ludwig Ott’s Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma. For topical study in particular, you can find important texts in Sources by looking at what gets cited by the Catechism and Ott.

Of course, Ott and Vatican II use the older numbering system, handled by the “SCD” data type in Logos, and the Catechism and recent papal encyclicals use the newer numbering system, handled by the “DS” data type, so if you want to work the other direction and figure out where a particular text in Sources is cited in your library, you’ll need to search for both numbering systems.

If you’re browsing Sources with the Cited By tool open, switching the active index as described above will also change whether it’s searching for the SCD number or DS number. You can construct a search for either reference using the “OR” operator. For example, “<SCD 1789> OR <DS 3008>.”

More information about search operators and reference searches can be found on the Logos Wiki, and the chapter on searching that we’re preparing for the Catholic Practicum training videos goes into these topics in some depth.

Celebrating the Year of Faith

Pope Benedict XVI has announced that October 11, 2012 through November 24, 2013 will be celebrated as a “Year of Faith” to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the opening of the Second Vatican Council and the 20th anniversary of the promulgation of the Catechism of the Catholic Church.

The Vatican’s Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith has released a Note containing recommendations for the universal Church, episcopal conferences, dioceses, and parishes for celebrating the Year of Faith, “to aid both the encounter with Christ through authentic witnesses to faith, and the ever-greater understanding of its contents.”

In particular, the Year of Faith “will offer a special opportunity for all believers to deepen their knowledge of the primary documents of the Second Vatican Council and their study of the Catechism of the Catholic Church.” The note encourages initiatives for this at all levels through symposia, seminary curricula, diocesan study days, homilies, and parish-level teaching.

Also, to this end,

The republication in paperback and economical editions of the Documents of Vatican Council II, the Catechism of the Catholic Church and its Compendium is to be promoted, as is the wider distribution of these texts through electronic means and modern technologies. (emphasis added)

I resisted the temptation to title this post “Pope: ‘Buy Logos Bible Software!’” (even if exaggerated misreadings of the Vatican seem to be par for the course in the press), but it’s hard to imagine better timing for the arrival of the Logos edition of the Catechism.

Significantly, the CDF Note quotes Pope Benedict’s well-known 2005 address to the Roman Curia calling for an understanding of the Second Vatican Council that rejects a “hermeneutic of discontinuity and rupture” and replaces it with a hermeneutic of reform and renewal in continuity. And, along the same lines, the Note quotes his Apostolic Letter Porta Fidei announcing the Year of Faith, calling the Catechism an “authentic fruit” of the Council, in which

we see the wealth of teaching that the Church has received, safeguarded and proposed in her two thousand years of history. From Sacred Scripture to the Fathers of the Church, from theological masters to the saints across the centuries, the Catechism provides a permanent record of the many ways in which the Church has meditated on the faith and made progress in doctrine so as to offer certitude to believers in their lives of faith.

The Logos edition of the Catechism is just one way that electronic media can make these texts more accessible for the Year of Faith, but, especially when combined with one of our base packages, its particular strength is the way it seamlessly links together the Catechism and Vatican II with their sources in Holy Scripture and in the entire Catholic tradition. This makes it an ideal tool for the kind of renewed understanding the Pope is calling for for—a gateway into the faith and a deeper understanding of the tradition behind it.

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